Nowadays, forensic science plays a vital role in investigating crime scene to provide fair and just judgemets in the court. Now you may have oncern that how forensic science helps to investigate crimes but, forensic science is a part of our criminal justice system lets see how:-
When a crime happens in a country every police officer or say courts needs the forensic department to evaluate or examine the evidence/proof collected from the crime scene. But, there is a proper procedure of collecting evidence and sent them for the tests or examine which is prescribed by law. Procedure followed by officers:-
- Crime scene
- Preservation of the crime scene
- Recording of the crime scene
Crime scene is a spot or place where crime commits. There are types of crime scene which is mentioned under law books like, outdoor, indoor and conveyance crime scenes.
Outdoor crime scenes can be destroyed or contaminated easily or say evidence caneasily be changed in these type of crime scenes because of outside nature or say risk is greater when crime scene investigators fails to collect evidence on time. Destruction of evidence due to environment condition such as heat, rain, cold, snow are problems associated with outdoor crime scene. Few examples of outdsoor crime scenes are crimes commit outside somewere on road, on highways,etc.
Indoor crime scenes cannot be easily destroyed or say there is no threat of contamination or change in physical evidence. It is very easy to secure the indoor crime scene by simply clossing a door. Indoor crime scenes are basically those crimes which commit inside the permisses like in the house, building or say with in the 4 walls.
Conveyance crime scenes are something that commits through means of transportation or vehicle. Like, burglary, grand theft, sexual battery, homicide,etc. It is very important for investigators to properly or carefully lookout for the evidence because it can be moved from one place to another because of vehicle movements. Such as footprints, vehicle prints, tiers prints,etc. are the evidence under this type of crime scenes. Through a fooprint or car’s tier prints officer can identify the model of the car by contacting to a company or somewhere else. There are some times when the vehicle used by the offender found on the crime scene then to save the evidence (vehicle) from the loss or wether the vehicle transported to thr laboratory after proper documentation.
PRESERVATION OF THE CRIME SCENE
Next step is to preserve or secure the crime scene from he outside world interference. It is a duty of investigating officerto firstly preserve the crime scene by making the perimeter to protect the crime scene, remove non-involved person or public, maintain an accurate scene log to record the names who enters or leaves the place,etc.
It is a duty of every first person who discovers the crime scene or a officer to not move anything unless absolutely neccessary because this means the disturbance in the crime scene or evidences, next, keep each piece of evidence separate from other piece of evidence in order to prevent cross contamination, use a bags for collecting evidences, when a cellphone/mobile is a part of crime scene then take precaution to secure the documents or informations in the mobile by switching it off, do not touch any part of he incident scene and securely collect evidence without any contaminations. After the collection of eveidence then the evidences transfers to the pollice officer or security intelligence officer for further proceedings of presenting the same in the court.
RECORDING OF THE CRIME SCENE
Now, the investigator begins to investigate the scene by reciording the facts for further proceedings. Under this step officer have to record the facts and details observed by him at the crime scene. Discovery of every single evidence about where and when it is found. Details covers the following aspects of crime scene;-
- Date and time when FIR lodged,
- Nature of crime what type of crime it is,
- Discription of the area where crime committed,
- Facts of the crime heard or recognised,
- Name of officers, witnesses, investigators present at crime scene,
- Name of person who took the photograph, sketch, fingerprints, etc.
- Date and time of completition of the recording of the crime scene.
Next step is to sketching the crime scene,
The officer should take a rough sketch of the crime scene for getting idea of everything. Sketching is usefull in evaluatng or examine the direction of the crime or say to examine distance ofcrime scene from a suspected area of offender for example, if a police officer has doubt on someone then the measurement of distance between the suspected area and crime scene is very important to evaluate the problem or to identify the offender. We can easily identify the time distance and overall the time covers to plan the crime by evaluationg the crime scene properly.
Now, photography of the crime scene,
It is very important to collect photograhs of the crime scene, or say it can be used as a evidence in the court. It is also usefull to examine the whole scene by seeing at photographs and sketches, for telling the whole story in summary form or to find something suspicious at the crime scene photography of the same can be helpfull. If someone tries to make alteration at the crime scene by disturbing the evidences or crime scene photographs will be the proof of the same and it can be helpful in finding the offender.
NEED OF FORENSIC SCIENCE IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION
WITH RELATED SECTIONS UNDER IPC, CRPC AND EVIDENCE ACT-
As we seen above, there is a prescribed procedure of forensic science to evaluate a crime scene. But, in simpe words let see why we need forensic science in criminal investigation.
We need forensic science to identify nature of death, how and when the crime commit, who committed the crime by collecting blood samples or hair samples,etc.
With the help of forensic science and their ways of collecting evidence a officer can easily identify the nature of death, but wait what do you understand by the nature of death. Nature of death is a matter or say subject matter of a death that how it commits is it suicide? Or a murder?
When someone’s dead body found the first questin in mind arouse that how it happens? And suddenly a police officer said that it was a suicide or a murder. How can someone tell? Just because of our technologies and developed science techniques one can easily find out or identifies the nature of death whether it is suicide or murder
But now the another question comes in mind that how can a officer tell us it is a murder or suicide? When a procedure of collecting evidence starts, a officer collects each and every possible evidence from the crime scene. Like, when a officer found a knife covered in blood of victim and a dead body of victiim, and they saw another person’s footprints on a floor and fingerprints of offender on the knife they can easily states that this is a murder.
DNA testing is a another way to identify a naature of crime a blood on a knife in above example is collected separatly for a sample then the dead body’s blood taken for further clarification that whether the blood matches the victim’s DNA or not.
Now the question is when the crime commits? With the help of forensic team and medical staffs a forensic officer can easily identifies the time period of a offense that, when the offence committed what is a approximate time of committed crime officer can tel you the exact time period that the crime iscommitted 1 or 2 hours earlier and so on.
How death occurs, whether due to any poisonous substnce or with a knife or with any other intent ?
As we know there are several different sections for different types of crime like for poison consumption there is section 174 of Cr.P.C. and there is a different way to punish a offender of motor vehicle act (accident) which is governed by section 279 of IPC and for dowry death section 498(A) of IPC.
TOXICOLOGY one of the technique of science embodying the knowledge, analysis of poisons and the remedial measures. Whenever someone get poisoned by someone and admitted to hospital then doctors firstly identifies the type of a poison and related measures to cure it. But when someon dies of poison then forensic department firstly find outs what type of poison it was and how does poison reacts to a victim’s body amount of poison, etc.
SECTION 174 OF Cr.P.C., police to enquire and report on suicide,etc. When a police officer recieves the information that someone committed suicide or attacked by someone or there is a doubt on the nature of death that there must be a involvement of someone else in the death or say when there is a possibility that someone else committed the offence. The police officer reached the spot and tries to get information from two or more neighbourhoods and relatives to kow about the relations of a women or a victim and about their injuries, bruises, wounds or fractures,etc.. police need to investigate the proper way whether it was a suicide commit by a women within the 7 years of her marriage or there is a murder by her relative or someone else. At this point officer needs an forensic department to investigate the body and to know the nature of crime.
SECTION 498(A) OF IPC, Husband or his relatives subjecting her to cruelty with illegal intend, whoever, husband or his relatives does cruelty to the women shall be punished with the term of 3 years and shall also be liable for fine. CRUELTY is a way to drive the women to commit suicide or to cause such bodily injury or danger to life, limb or health of the women for dowry.
Under this with the help of forensic experts one can easily identifies that at what extent women traumatised to commit suicide or at what extent her husband or relatives tortured her to bring her to death.
SECTION 45 OF INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT, opinion of experts, some times a normal person or judge or even pollice officer cant judge whether what type of poison, weapon, or say sometimes there are some confusions occurs at the time of court proceedings that judge order for the opinion of experts. Whenever Rape commits a victim needed a MNC or say medical examination when svictim in such case that he/she cant say anything or express his/ her feelings then judge can order for a opinion of experts to acknowledge them what to do next and their opinions considered to solve the case or say to serve justice.
Hence, our law system need forensic science in our criminal justice system to serve justice, to save someone or to punish offender.